Geology 109, General
Spring 1996, Learning Community Section
Unit1, Molecules and Chemical Bonding
- Loss or gain of electrons producing ions
Ions are charged atoms
- Sodium Chloride example here can be
and extended to other "salts"
- Na +1 Cl -1
- K+1 Cl -1
- Ca +2 Cl-12
- Ca +2 CO3 -2 (note CO3
is a molecular ion.)
- The dipole molecule produced by the covalent bonding of twp
hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
creation of positive ears and negative chins creates:
- Hydrogen Bonding between water molecules (surface tension),
ear to chin bonding
- only 10% of internal covalent bonds
- Solvency characteristics (Universal Solvent).
- Ears attacking negative and chins going after positive
- Production of "Hydrated Ions"
- Other unique physical characteristics
- High freezing and boiling point
- Instead of contracting upon cooling, water below 4 degrees
- Upon freezing expands 9 % in volume (solid floats on liquid
- Very High Heat Capacity
- Heats and cools slower than most other materials
- Comparison of a waterbed and regular bed heat.
- Important Climatic Implications
- No water on Moon
+135C to -155C
- Here on Earth 57C to -68C